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  • 首页 新闻中心 学校概况 教学科研 园丁之家 学生园地 德教阵地 招生信息 荣誉榜
    德教阵地

    小学童话教学研究
    发布时间: 2010-12-6      阅读次数:1851


    一、童话教学的意义
    童话,是一类具有特殊审美价值的虚幻故事,它以拟人、夸张、象征为其主要表现手法,以幻想为其艺术形态,主要读者是儿童。童话深受儿童喜爱,是小学语文课程的一个重要教学内容。
    (一)童话教学可以加强学生的朗读与复述能力,提高学生的语文素养
    古人云:书读百遍,其义自见。朗读和背诵是我国传统的教学方法。这是学生理解语言、体会思想感情、培养语感、提高阅读能力的有效途径。在朗读和背诵时,如果教师指导得当,学生就可以加深对课文的理解。学生只有读出声音,自己听到,才能有效地把书面文字和它的含义联系起来,一些难以言传的词句通过朗读,可以意会,想象其情境。在这一过程中,学生不仅有所知,还能有所感,有所悟。
    童话通过语言来表现鲜明的人物形象、生动的故事情节、深刻的情感和独特的艺术风格。童话的语言浅近、口语化,但并不等于平庸、苍白,而是经过艺术提炼的,既通俗明白、晓畅而又有艺术的美感。童话的语言具有幽默性和模糊性,儿童对童话的理解会因为自身的生活经历和想象力的不同而变得非常丰富。语言可以给儿童想象的空间,使儿童在感受语言美的同时,发展儿童的想象力和思维力。所以教师应该利用童话作为载体激发学生阅读的兴趣,培养学生的语文素养。
    (二)童话教学可以激发学生的写作能力
    俄国小说家邦达列夫说:“一个人打开一本书,就是在仔细观察第二生活。就像在镜子深处,寻找自己的主角,寻找着自己思考的答案,不由自主会把别人的命运、别人的勇敢精神与个人的性格特点相比较,感到遗憾、怀疑、懊恼,他会哭、会笑、会同情和参与。”学生作文其实就是用笔说话,就是要写出他们的真实情感。小学生在作文中常常写套话、大人话,根本没有写出自己的心里话。文章贵在求真,童话为孩子找到心灵的栖息所——一个儿童的真实情感世界,为学生感受和体验丰富多彩的情感提供了机会。儿童在学习课本中的童话后,再在老师的引导下阅读更多的童话,可以获得间接的生活积累,丰富对人生的体验感受,提高对生活认识的能力。
    童话的语言浅近、口语化,但并不等于平庸、苍白,而是经过艺术提炼的,既通俗明白、晓畅而又有艺术的美感。语文新课标对学生的课外阅读提出了一定的要求,小学阶段课外阅读总量要求达到150万字以上。童话对儿童的吸引力比较强,儿童通过童话作品可以增加课外阅读量,可以开拓视野积累更多的课外知识,获得丰富的语言积累,提高他们遣词造句的能力。假设小学生没有课外阅读,那么他们在作文中就不能恰如其分地表达自己的思想感情。童话对儿童的吸引力比较强,儿童通过童话作品可以增加课外阅读量,可以开拓视野积累更多的课外知识,获得丰富的语言积累,提高他们遣词造句的能力。小学生平时要注重课外阅读,学习文中好的词语、句式以及修辞手法,养成积累的习惯,写作时就会写出比较好的作文。而学生在学习童话时培养的想象力对写作文又有促进作用,因为丰富的想象力会卓有成效地帮助学生打开思路、活跃思维。
    (三)童话教学可以培养学生的审美情感
    小学儿童的情感发展特点是:情感的表现形态不断发生变化;儿童不善于控制自己的情感,情绪多变,激情占优势,心境的持续时间短;情感的内容不断丰富;情感的稳定性不断增强;高级社会性情感逐步发展。
    童话是以一种儿童可以接受的方式描绘了世界上一切情感:爱与恨、情和仇、喜和悲、乐与苦、敬与畏等等。儿童在欣赏和感悟童话时获得的情感体验丰富来自他们的生活体验,在肯定或否定的心理反映中,他们体会到了喜欢、愤怒、悲伤、爱慕、厌恶、赞赏等等情感体验。这些体验的获得,对儿童的个性发展和社会性也是很有好处的。儿童在阅读童话的过程中,会进入光怪陆离的童话幻境,体验现实生活中未曾体验的过程,同时还可以从童话作家独具特色的审美个性、粗犷的美、幽默的美、抒情的美以及喜剧美、悲剧美……儿童在阅读童话的过程中会使儿童的心灵日渐丰富,审美品位不断提高。
    (四)童话教学可以培养学生的想象力和创造力
    想象是在外界的刺激的影响下,人们在头脑中通过先前感知过的事物加工改造,是形成新形象的过程。想象是创造的基础,它在人类认识客观、改造世界的过程中有着重要作用。没有想象力就没有创造、创新精神。儿童因为认知能力和知识经验的不足,很难对一些千奇百怪的现象作出科学的解释,要解开这些疑团,儿童惟有借助想象去解读童话。儿童比起成年人来,更喜欢想象,在某种程度上比成人更富于创造性。在儿童对丑小鸭的遐想中,在对卖火柴的小女孩的同情中,在对动物们的生活的向往中,都是儿童的想象在活动。
    童话的基本特征是幻想, 而且是最丰富、最自由的幻想, 因而童话是激发儿童想象力的最好文学样式。童话把现实中复杂的问题单纯化、深奥的问题浅显化、严肃的问题轻松化, 让一些抽象的道理和道德观念自然地潜入儿童的思想之中; 而且童话有完美的大结局,能够增强儿童的信心,激发儿童对现实世界的憧憬和向往, 对儿童认识世界起到了很好的正面引导作用。童话作品能把小读者带入一个神奇而诱人的世界,引导他们去向往、去思考、去奋斗。生动的形象,精辟的比喻,自由飞翔的幻想,可以帮助他们了解本来比较艰深的思想道理,培养他们的想象力。
    从心理学的角度说,中小学生正是最富于幻想、想象力最旺盛的时期,童话作品中丰富的幻想与想象,正同他们的心理特征相吻合。教师要善于利用童话的特点在教学中培养学生的想象力和创造力。语言文字可以给儿童想象的空间,使儿童在感受语言美的同时,发展想象力和思维力。教师在课后应该向学生推荐更多优秀的童话作品,让学生阅读更多的童话作品,发展他们的想象力和思维力。
    二、小学教材中童话的特征
    (一)幻想和现实的结合
    幻想是童话的基本特征,也是童话用以反映生活的特殊艺术手段。它是童话的核心,也是童话的灵魂,没有幻想就没有童话。幻想是创造想像的一种特殊形式。由个人愿望或社会需要而引起,是一种指向未来的想像。艺术幻想是一种创作手段,是作家不满足于模仿现实的本来形态,而按自己的需要来虚构形象的一种创作方法。它植根于生活,往往又对生活作夸张的叙述和描绘达到一种升华,因而幻想中的事物比真实情况下的更活跃,更富色彩。童话中充满丰富的诗意的幻想,作家利用幻想手段作折光的反射,借以寄托自己的情感和理想,表达对真、假、善、恶、美、丑的审美评价。
    例如安徒生写的《卖火柴的小女孩》就是幻想和现实的典范。读了《卖火柴的小女孩》我们脑中就会浮现出“小女孩手抓一把火柴,被活活冻死”的画面。而文中小女孩五次擦火柴出现的幻想就是创造想象。作者根据小女孩身边燃尽的火柴梗,展开了丰富而又合理的想象:小女孩四次擦燃火柴,先后看到了火炉、烤鹅、圣诞树和慈爱的奶奶。小女孩的幻想充满着温暖、食物、欢乐和爱抚,最后跟着奶奶“飞到了没有寒冷,没有饥饿,也没有痛苦的地方去了”。这些都是借助想象虚构出来的,表现了穷人渴望摆脱黑暗,追求光明和幸福的强烈愿望。
    (二)拟人和夸张的运用
    童话通过幻想把动植物和没有生命的物体拟人化,具有人的思想感情,会说话会思想会行动。一方面,这些主人公具有人的某种性格特征,另一方面,又具有它自身的内在特性。例如《小猫钓鱼》,小猫天真活泼,顽皮好动,做事不专心的性格,和绝大多数儿童的性格有相似之处。同时,小猫爱吃鱼爱捉蜻蜓,又是猫这种动物的真实本性。这篇童话通过描写一只淘气的小猫,表达了做事不能三心两意的主题。
    夸张是对所要表现的对象或某种特征,故意地夸大或缩小。如果童话里幻想的内容没有夸张就会失去光彩;童话形象如果没有夸张的修饰就会显得暗淡。童话往往具有讽刺性,但如果没有夸张就会失去锋芒。童话的话言如果缺少夸张,就会缺乏感受染力。如《皇帝的新装》里的那个赤裸裸的皇帝,在现实生活中是不可能有的,但我们相信这个故事。因为现实中就有这种骗子,利用一些人的虚伪、愚昧,导演了一幕幕谎诞的剧目。所以这种幻想源于现实又高于现实,具有象征的意义。
    (三)语言简洁活泼,表现手法多样
    童话的语言具有一般的文学语言所具有的情感性、形象性、含蓄性和音乐性等特征。童话的语言通过动物或人物之口来表达,这些语言来自生活发自内心,与儿童自身的语言比较接近。儿童在阅读童话时很容易进入童话创设的情境,同文本进行对话,与童话作者和作品人物进行思想情感的交流。
    童话的表现手法主要有夸张、拟人、象征三种。
    1、夸张
    夸张是文学艺术中通用的一种艺术手法,童话的夸张不是对生活中某一部分简单而适度地放大或缩小,而是极度的夸张,全面的夸张。童话中精彩的童话人物形象往往是由夸张产生的。宝葫芦能说人话,有人一样的思想情感,是拟人的夸张;豌豆公主能感觉的到40床垫被下有一颗豌豆,是怪诞的夸张;丑小鸭变成了美丽的天鹅,是象征的夸张。
    2、拟人
    拟人就是把非人类的东西加以人格化,赋予它们人类的思想情感、行为和语言能力。童话中拟人化的范围十分广泛,包括对动物、植物以及其它非生物、各种具体和抽象事物、概念、观念、品质的拟人化。拟人化童话中的人格化的角色,并不等于生活中真实的人。他们具备了人的某些特点,但仍然保留物的许多属性,既是人又是物。
    例如《风筝找朋友》中的风和风筝,既有人的特点,又有风和风筝的特点,风对风筝说:“你要是哭了,你的身上吸了泪水,就会变湿了,变得很重很重,我就推不动你,你也就飞不起来啦!”
    3、象征
    象征是童话把幻想和现实结合起来的一种重要方式,也是童话创造典型的一种常用的方法。童话中的人物形象常常是象征性的。为了表现某种性格或说明某个事理,作者从生活中找出某些人、物、现象,甚至某种社会观念的性格、性质和特征,集中到童话人物的身上,然后又赋于他们以个性,并使之依照这一个性去说话、行动,从而达到象征的目的。
    三、小学阶段童话教学存在的问题
    为了调查实际的童话教学重存在的问题,笔者发放了200份问卷,发放的学校有9所,回收的有效问卷有189份。其中3所是四会市的农村小学,共发放70份问卷,有3所是四会市区的普通小学共发放70份问卷,两间是四会市区的私立学校共发放问卷60份。在农村小学回收有效问卷64份,回收率91.5%;在城市小学回收有效问卷67份,回收率95.7%;在私立学校回收有效问卷56份,回收率93%。

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